The thirteenth district in the sate of Kerala nestles its head on the slopes of western ghats and stretches to the low-lying rice fields bordering Alappuzha district. The district consist of three natural divisions viz the Lowland the Midland and the Highland.The highland stretches through the western ghats and descends midland in the centre, to the lowland and cocunut gardens on the western borders of Alappuzha disrict. The topography of the district is highly undulating.It starts from the tall hill slopes covered with thick forests on the east along the mountains down to the valleys and small hills to the flat land of coconut trees in the west. Pathanamthitta engrossed on the hilly terrain of Kerala can rightly be called the headquarters of pilgrimage tourism in the state. Sabarimala, an important Hindu pilgrimage centre attracts crores of pilgrims from the different parts of India and the state.
According to the 2011 census Pathanamthitta district has a population of 1,195,537. This gives it a ranking of 399th in India (out of a total of 640).The district has a population density of 453 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,170/sq mi).Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was −3.12%.Pathanamthitta has a sex ratio of 1129 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 96.93%. Pathanamthitta District is one of the few districts to have negative growth in population.
According to the Census of India 2001, the district had a population of 1,234,016 with a density of 467 persons per square kilometre. This is the lowest density in the State after Idukki and Wayanad. Schedule tribes and castes comprise 13% of the total population. The female to male ratio is 1094:1000, which is the highest among the districts in the State. Pathanamthitta’s literacy rate is 95%.
Pathanamthitta’s major religion are Hinduism, Christianity and Islam. Sikhs, Buddhists and Jains have much smaller followings. As of 2004 the population included 694,560(56.28%) Hindus, 481,602 (39.03%) Christians and 56,457 (4.58%) Muslims, the lowest following in the State.
As of 2011 the population included 681,666(56.93%) Hindus, 456,404 (38.12%) Christians and 55,074(4.60%) Muslims.
The district has more or less the same climatic conditions as prevalant elsewhere in the state viz, dry season from the Dec to Feb and hot season from March to may. The climate is generally moderate, the temperature rising from 20 C to 39 C. The south west monsoon from June to September and the north west monsoon from October to November provide fairly good rain.
Pathanamthitta is a true tropical diversity adorned with fertile agricultural land, plantations and forest. Paddy, tapioca, varieties of vegetables, fruits like Ramboothan and spices like cardamom, pepper etc. are extensively cultivated. The district also abounds in extensive rubber plantations.
Pathanamthitta is a true tropical diversity adorned with fertile agricultural land, Pathanamthitta district has a reserve forest area of 1,385.27 square kilometres (534.86 sq mi). This is approximately 50% of the total district area. The forest area can broadly be classified as evergreen, semi-evergreen and moist deciduous. The forest is the main source of raw materials for wood based industrial units. Timber is the most important produce.
Three important rivers flow through the district. These rivers originate from various mountains of the Western Ghats mountain range. The Pamba (176 km or 109 mi), which is the third longest river in Kerala, has its origin in Pulachimala. The Achankovil river (128 km or 80 mi) originates from Pasukida Mettu, and Manimala river (90 km or 56 mi) originates from the Thattamalai hills. A small portion of Kallada river also falls in the southern border of the district. Pamba and Achankovil rivers together drain more than 70% of the total area of Pathanamthitta.
Flora and Fauna
The forests of the district have excellent wild life habitats. A variety of animals and birds can be found. Tigers, elephants, gaur, deer, monkeys and other wild animals are found in the forest. Giant squirrel, lion-tailed macaques, barking deer and bear can also be spotted in the reserve. Malabar grey hornbill and great Indian hornbill are found. Wide variety of other birds such as sunbirds, woodpeckers and kingfishers can also be seen.
The existence of the wildlife habitat is under threat from various areas. Pollution from fertilizer and industries and illegal sand mining are the major threats. Issues connected to Sabarimala pilgrimage such as clearing of forest land and large amount of waste discharged also threatens the habitat.
|Area||2642 Sq Km|
|No. of Revenue Disivions||2|
|No. of Block Panchayats||8|
|No. of Taluks||5|
|No. of Municipalities||4|
|No. of Villages||70|
|No. of Gram Panchayats||53|